EWA WOLNICZ - PAWLOWSKA
NA TLE POLSKIM I SLOWACKIM
(XVI - XIX wiek)
[published within the book]
The present work deals with Lemkian anthroponymy as attested between the 16th and 19th centuries. it is considered against the back-ground or the anthroponomy of neighboring South-Eastern Poland and Eastern Slovakia. The investigation deals with Christian names and surnames (including rudiments of surnames), which in the present work are called "additional identifiers" (AI's). In the part dealing with Christian names Lemkian anthroponyms recorded in the 2nd half of the 20th century were also taken into account. The material is taken from both manuscript and printed sources.
The Lemkian anthroponymy of the 16th-19th centuries has not, until now, been made the object of an elaborate study in Polish linguistic literature.
The aims of the present work were therefore:
1) to present the historical material;
2) to analyze it;
3) to compare it with the anthroponomy of the Western Slavonic neighbors of the Lemkians in the North (Poland) and South (Slovak), and
4) to establish the main lines of development of the Lemkian anthroponymic system in comparison with the Polish and Slovak ones.
In addition to its Ukrainian basis, Lemkian anthroponymy contains many other elements; among these the oldest layer is of Romanian origin, more recent layers are constituted by Polish, Slovak, Hungarian and German. These elements may be discerned both in the lexical fund as well as in the derivational structure of Lemkian proper names. In view of the various influences undergone by Lemkian anthroponymy an extensive material is cited. Group II is heterogeneous as well; for commodity's sake it is here called "Slovak", though it contains a lot of Polish and Hungarian anthroponyms.
The present investigation shows that in the course of its development Lemkian anthroponymy grew closer to the West Slavonic (Polish and Slovak) systems.
Within the category of Christian names this process of convergence has operated, first of all, in the lexicon, by the fact of Polish and Slovak names (especially in their derived forms) being borrowed into Lemkian anthroponymy . A certain influence of Lemkian anthroponymy on the neighboring dialects of Malopolska manifests itself in the increased popularity of names with the formats -ko, - 'ko.
In the category of AI's the process of convergence of the three above-mentioned groups was a result of a common tendency to reduce the number of descriptive forms in favor of suffixal derivatives. In all three groups the most prominent among the suffixal derivatives are those with multi-functional suffixes containing the element k, as well as with the suffix -s'kyj (Polish -ski, Slovak -sky), which, apart from detoponymic names, also underlies analogous formations modeled on the former. In the period investigated we may note a decrease in the number of unambiguously patronymic formations with -ov, in (-yn), -ovic' (-ovyc') and *-et.
On the other hand, no major changes are to be observed in the ratio of AI's derived from Christian names to those derived from other bases. Within each of the investigated groups the percentage of AI's derived from Christian names remained more or less constant throughout the centuries. If, moreover, we compare the situation in the 16th century to that of the present day, we observe an evolution of Lemkian anthroponomy bringing it closer to the Western Slavonic systems (cf. table A).
Lemkian anthroponymy was characterized by its strong evolutionary dynamism, with specific intrinsic features such as the initially strong representation of singular descriptions, the extensive use made of pragmatic derivation and fossilized inflectional forms, and the frequent occurrence of matronymic names.
Tables A and B illustrate the major differences in the internal structure of surnames in groups I, II and III.
Table A shows the ration of AI's derived from Christian names to those derived from other bases.
Table B illustrates the quantitative relation between the two most frequent types of AI's: (a) those transferred from other word classes without any additional formal markers, and (b) those derived by means of anthroponymic suffixes.
Table A: The ratio of AI's derived from Christian names to those derived from appellatives, ethnonyms and geographical names
Century Lemkians Poles Slovaks a) b) a) b) a) b) 16th 37% 61% 19% 79% 31% 61% 17th 33% 65% 19% 80% 27% 68% 18th 29% 69% 17% 82% 33% 62% 19th 30% 69% 17% 82% 33% 62%
Commentary on table A: a) AI's derived from Christian names, b) AI's derived from appellatives, ethnonyms and geographical names. If the figures do not add up to 100%, the difference consists of ambiguous and unclear cases.
Table B: The ratio of AI's transferred from other word classes to those derived by
means of suffixes
Century Lemkians Poles Slovaks a) b) a) b) a) b) 16th 21% 50% 33% 60% 54% 34% 17th 22% 60% 31% 66% 35% 58% 18th 25% 70% 32% 64% 31% 65% 19th 31% 64% 34% 63% 27% 68%
Commentary on table B: a) AI's transferred from other word classes; b) AI's derived by means of suffixes. If the figures do not add up to 100%, the difference consists of instances of paradigmatic derivation or singular descriptions.
The material, illustrated by means of several cross-sections, shows that the Polish system of AI's has been stable since the 16th century. This system is based on two elements: AI's formed by means of suffixation, arid AI's transferred from other word classes (mainly appellatives and Christian names), cf. table B.
Slovak anthroponymy occupies an intermediary position between the clear-cut, stable Polish model and the dynamic Lemkian system. The main lines of development of Lemkian anthroponymy have brought it closer to the Western Slavonic systems; a greater number of common features seem to link the Lemkian system to the Slovak than to the Polish one.
(Translated by Axel Holvoel)
Map of area studied
Page prepared by Walter Maksimovich
E-mail: email@example.com Originally Composed: April 8th, 1997
Date last modified: March 25th, 2012.